New boundaries were mapped out for the splintered territory in 1947. As the situation developed into civil war, onlookers began to worry. ‘Atzmaut and Nakba 1947–67’ looks at the United Nations' efforts to implement its plan and the events that followed. Following the withdrawal of British forces in May 1948, a regional war broke out between the new state of Israel and its Arab neighbours. By the time the armistice agreements were signed in 1949, the independent state of Israel was established within boundaries that comprised 78 percent of mandate Palestine. For the next two decades, the state of Israel focused attention on economic consolidation, the absorption of another wave of immigrants, and defence against belligerent neighbours.