Since 2001, the parameters for a resolution of the hundred-year-old Palestinian–Israeli conflict have been elaborated upon by a number of initiatives. The Conclusion looks at these initiatives and towards the future. Each initiative has strengthened the regional and international consensus supporting a two-state nation. Finally, in November 2012, the United Nations General Assembly recognized a Palestinian state. In the absence of a two-state solution, what issues does Israel now face? One scenario could be a shared homeland. The other could be the conclusion that Jewish history has been traumatic for Israelis to accept being a minority but recognizes that the Palestinian Arab population is growing more rapidly than the Jewish Israeli one.