Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction examines the historical, ideological, and local roots of terrorist violence and explores terrorism in relation to revolutionary power, nationalism, and religious extremism. How does terrorism end? Is one person's terrorist another's freedom fighter? Is terrorism crime or war? For many, the terrorist attacks of September 2001 changed the face of the world, pushing terrorism to the top of many political agendas, leading to a series of world events including the war in Iraq and the invasion of Afghanistan. This VSI considers complex issues related to the successes of specific terrorist and anti-terrorist campaigns in the distant past, and in recent years.