The framework for much of modern terrorist action is ethnic or nationalist, with each nationalism being culturally unique. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914 was a nationalist act. Nationalist movements have shown greater resilience than smaller left-wing revolutionary groups. Nationalism is a very strong force, so even a nation whose struggle seems likely to fail, such as the Chechens, may never give up. ‘Nationalism and terror’ looks at how nationalists have used terror to fight their cause and illustrates this with examples such as the Irish republicans, the Basque separatists Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, and Zionism in Palestine. Can terror liberate nations?