How has the ideal of good democratic government which flourished in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries adapted to fit the new theories and practices of governance? ‘Good governance’ considers how the spread of governance theory and related ideas poses new problems and inspires new agendas, especially in the context of development. The new governance arose as hierarchical organizations fell out of favour and social scientists and policymakers began to look to markets and networks as alternatives to bureaucracy. Some observers feel that the complexity of networks undermines accountability, since decisions are often made by unelected officials. Collaborative governance, however, provides an alternative in which participation and dialogue supplement representation and accountability.