The modern climate system is influenced by millions years of plate tectonics, which have produced occurrences such as large amounts of ice at both Poles. ‘Tectonics and climate’ considers the effects of tectonics on the Earth's climate system. There are direct effects, including mountain and plateau uplift, that impact the way oceans circulate. There are also indirect effects that influence the content of the atmosphere through subduction, volcanism, and consumption of gases by chemical weathering. Horizontal tectonics shows what happens if the continental plates are moved around the globe. Vertical tectonics examines the effect of mountains and plateaus. Volcanoes and supervolcanoes also influence climate.