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p. 1097. Nature's lawslocked

  • Ian Stewart

Abstract

‘Nature's laws’ investigates instances of symmetry in the laws of nature. Noether's theorem states that wherever a Hamiltonian system has a continuous symmetry, there is a conserved quantity. The Lie theory is the standard landscape for studying continuous symmetries. Lie groups have a geometric structure analogous to that of a smooth surface, but with more dimensions. In particle physics, symmetries organize the fields which particles exist in, and are crucial to the classification of fundamental particles. Scientists have been able to use symmetry to unify many forces, but an understanding of supersymmetry may be necessary to unify gravity.

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