What does an archaeologist do? To the general public, archaeology tends to be synonymous with digging, but someme archaeologists never excavate. The Introduction looks at what archaeology really means. Today it is the study of human past through the material traces that have been left behind. Archaeologists are distinct from palaeontologists and geologists. Archaeology's interest begins with the first tools, around 2.5 million years ago, and stretches to the present day. As nobody truly knows what happened in the past, there will never be an end to archaeological research. Theories change, new evidence comes to light, and as with science, archaeology evolves constantly.