‘Risk-taking, antisocial behaviour, and delinquency’ considers the incidence of risky behaviour, gender differences, and historical changes. Males are more likely to exhibit risky behaviour than females. Although minor or infrequent antisocial acts may be frequent in adolescence, not all adolescents get involved, and many do not get involved a lot. The most powerful predictors from middle childhood to chronic delinquency in adolescence are: troublesomeness in school; hyperactivity/poor concentration; low intelligence and poor attainment; family criminality; family poverty; and poor parenting. Social control theory argues that antisocial behaviour is less likely when the young person has a stake in social institutions such as the family, school, or clubs and societies.