Why do humans have such widespread dental disease and orthodontic disorders compared with other species? ‘Human teeth and their history’ shows that the answer is rooted in our evolutionary history. It examines the hominin fossil record to see the size, shape, and structure of the earliest hominins' teeth and to see how the Homo species developed smaller, wimpier teeth over time. Dental paleopathologists see the prevalence of today's dental diseases and orthodontic disorders as a mismatch between our teeth and jaws on the one hand, and our diet on the other. In effect, our diet is changing too fast for our teeth and jaws to keep up.