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p. 242. Studying mineralslocked

  • David Vaughan

Abstract

The study of minerals begins with their characterization, identification, and classification determined from their chemical compositions and crystallographic properties. ‘Studying minerals’ shows that historically this was based on properties observable in hand specimens, but the development of wide-ranging techniques has allowed the study of all aspects of minerals: their structures, chemistries, surface chemistries, and reactivities. Techniques described include transmitted light and reflected light microscopy using thin and polished sections; X-ray crystallography based on Bragg’s Law; techniques using various forms of electromagnetic radiation; and electron microscopes including the transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, scanning tunnelling microscope, and atomic force microscope.

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