To bring about its reactions and to identify what has been produced, chemistry uses a wide variety of techniques. Similar techniques are used in analytical and forensic laboratories to identify substances and their abundances. ‘Its techniques’ outlines these key analytical techniques: titration; filtration; separation techniques, including chromatography; spectroscopy; nuclear magnetic resonance; mass spectrometry; and X-ray diffraction. Individual atoms on surfaces can be seen using scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Computational chemistry involves the computation and graphical portrayal of molecular structures. Finally, synthesis—the creation of desired forms of matter from simpler components—is explained.