Causes, we might say, make a difference to what happens. They are difference makers. ‘Counterfactual dependence: do causes make a difference?’ considers counterfactual dependence as a test of causation. There is a philosophical theory that this is more than just a test: that causation itself consists in counterfactual dependence between events. One idea is that the counterfactual dependence has to be between separate events. Causation needs to be a natural relation, concerning events that are happening in the world. Relations and relata are considered as well as facts and counterfacts, and overdetermination. It concludes that counterfactual dependence cannot be the same as causation.