‘“A and not A”: what is fascism?’ examines how fascism has been defined. Whereas Marxists held capitalists responsible for fascism, Weberians blamed the pre-industrial, or feudal, ruling class. Marxist and Weberian approaches emphasize conservative defence of material interests, while totalitarianism theory focuses on revolutionary ideas. The diversity of fascism is such that any definition soon encounters evidence that does not fit. However sophisticated a definition, it can never explain the history of an individual movement. One must seek the origins of fascism in the specific circumstances of specific groups. The only thing that really distinguishes fascism from other concepts is its enormous negative moral charge.