‘Fascism before fascism?’ looks at the precursors of fascism including the radical right, the Enlightenment, Anti-Enlightenment philosophy, and Gustave Le Bon, the French theorist of crowd psychology. The radical right was strong in countries where nationalist movements had recently established new states — Germany and Italy especially — but also in France, an old state, where a new Republic had been established in 1870. The upheaval of the Great War and the subsequent crisis must also be taken into account. Movements resembling Italian Fascism emerged more or less independently of each other in several countries, without using the name. But why did Fascism win power in Italy?