‘Italy: “making history with the fist”’ examines the development of fascism in Italy and Mussolini's dictatorship. In 1921, Fascism took off in regions affected by agrarian unrest, where the youthful rural bourgeoisie began to join in large numbers. Fascist squads began a violent campaign of intimidation against Catholics and Socialists, in which many hundreds were killed. By 1922 the Fascists had effectively taken over the administration in many rural areas and possessed a quarter of a million members. Mussonlini saw Italy's alliance with Hitler as the only way to expand Italian power, but the Italian war effort was unimpressive and Mussolini was evicted from office in 1943.