‘The diffusion of fascism’ considers the ‘fascist’ or ‘national socialist’ movements that appeared all over Europe, the Americas, and in colonized countries during the inter-war years. Foreign movements interpreted fascism according to their own purposes, borrowing some features, and modifying others. Anticolonial nationalists were interested in regimes that threatened colonial rulers and seemed to offer a national construction ideology. Yet as in Europe, racism and expansionism were major obstacles to the diffusion of fascism. Explicitly fascist movements generally struggled to become regimes. Fascism did best where it combined leverage in parliament with street action, as it had in Italy and Germany, and to a lesser extent in Hungary.