‘Phoenix from the ashes?’ examines some of the similarities and differences between present-day and inter-war fascist movements. There are genuine continuities between inter-war fascism and the modern extreme right: extreme nationalism and discrimination against ethnic minorities, antifeminism, antisocialism, populism, hostility to established social and political elites, anticapitalism, and antiparliamentarianism. There are equally significant differences: lack of mass mobilization, paramilitary violence, and the ambition to create a one-party state. More often, the modern far right seeks to exploit the discriminatory potential of democracy rather than overthrow it. The most successful of fascism's heirs transformed themselves into racist and populist parties operating within democratic legality.