‘Material minds’ considers Epicurus’ theory of perception and his views on knowledge and truth. The Epicureans maintained that the soul, like everything else, was material, composed of very small, light, mobile atoms that pervaded the entirety of the living body of an animal. Lucretius proposed that the mind grows up with the body, and that a mixture of four types of soul particles can explain the temperaments and capabilities of the various species. Sense perception, thinking, and dreaming are discussed, along with truth and error in perceptual experience. The Epicurean theory of materialism is then compared with three philosophical alternatives to materialism—dualism, panpsychism, and nescience—before considering modern-day materialism.