Epicureanism was the only sect of ancient Western philosophy to deny that the gods were active in the world and influenced the course of human events. Its recovery and reworking in the context of Christian monotheism in Europe was accordingly complex. Along with its absorption and development of its critique of religion, there was pointed resistance to the Epicurean challenge. ‘Religion and superstition’ asks whether Epicurus was really an atheist who denied the existence of the gods, or only a critic of the conventional religious practices and popular beliefs of his time. It also goes on to consider whether religion is obsolete.