Malaria is transmitted to humans through various species of Anopheles mosquitoes. In this century malaria rarely reaches out of the tropics, being limited by the ecological niche of its mosquito vectors. The most widespread strains of malaria are typically chronic and debilitating, rather than causing acute infection and death, but the cumulative impact of malaria on humanity is enormous. ‘Malaria’ considers the complexity of the disease; the history of human malaria; and the strategies employed against the disease, including the use of compatibility-blocking treatments such as quinine, chloroquine, and artemisinin, and encounter-blocking strategies such as residual indoor spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. It concludes by considering the future for malaria control.