Show Summary Details
Page of

date: 01 December 2021

p. 162. Freud and psychoanalysislocked

p. 162. Freud and psychoanalysislocked

  • Tom Burns
  •  and Eva Burns‐Lundgren


Almost all modern psychotherapies owe their origins to Freud and psychoanalysis. ‘Freud and psychoanalysis’ shows that although psychoanalysis is no longer the dominant psychotherapy, it has influenced virtually all subsequent therapies. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939), a neurologist based in Vienna, started it all. He used hypnosis for many years with his neurotic patients, but moved on to free association and dream interpretation. His psychoanalysis involved gaining an understanding of a person’s mental structures: the ego, id, super-ego, and defence mechanisms. The spread of psychoanalysis to the US, the UK, and South America was a result of the rise of Nazism in the 1930s, which forced many early analysts to leave Austria.

Access to the complete content on Very Short Introductions online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.