‘Climate change in the mountains’ examines the evidence of climate change in mountains, the most compelling being the melting of glaciers and the upwards movement of plants on mountain summits. It is likely that many mountain areas will continue to warm more strongly than the global average, especially at the highest altitudes. Precipitation levels will change and the proportion falling as snow is likely to decrease in most places. The impacts on ecosystems are discussed, and the challenges and opportunities they bring. New partnerships for mountain areas are needed in a globalized world, possibly involving very different stakeholders, including national and international NGOs, private companies, and research and development organizations.