‘Kingship, lordship, and government’ describes the development of ruling concepts and practices. Sacred kingship was born of a pact between dynastic rulers and the church. Rulers were expected to preserve Christian identity, protect the church, and promote justice and peace. Men who held public offices were often rewarded with entitlement to tax income from land. The system of lords, fiefs, and fealty formed the basis upon which long-term reorganization of land, wealth, and power took place. As kingdoms became larger, the burden of military defence and domestic administration became more onerous, and demanded central organization and record keeping, resulting in the development of parliaments.