‘The “Middle Ages” of “others”’ considers the people outside the Christian faith—Muslims, pagans, and Jews—to be found at the borders of Europe as well as within its midst. Christian teaching offered a message of hope through redemption, a path to salvation. Those outside the Christian body were destined to live in sin, existing as a menace to themselves and to others. The relationship between Jews and Christians is old and highly complex. Despite the close connections between their faiths through Hebrew texts, Jews were ostracized by Christians throughout this period. They faced forced conversion to Christianity, expulsion, or death.