At the time of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959 not much attention was given to resource management and environmental protection of the region. ‘Exploiting and protecting the Antarctic’ looks at the use of the resources of the Antarctic since the Treaty and focuses on sealing, whaling, fishing, and the taking of mineral resources. What future resources challenges will the region have to face? How should we protect Antarctica? Although challenges from climate change and pollution are vitally important, we also should think about the cumulative impact of resource exploitation. Balancing initiatives to encourage environmental protection with resource interests is going to be a key challenge of the future.