‘Performing Issues’ outlines the difficulties faced in recreating authentic early music performances. Performance practice is the study of performance in past times, and seeks to study early music on its own terms. This can be done by recreating period instruments, although this can create problems with pitch and tuning. Early musical scores did not try to record every action, and there was considerable scope for improvisation — much of early music was about interpretation. Debates rage over early music vocals along the lines of translations, pronunciations, and voices. One thing that cannot be recreated is a period audience with period tastes. Some scholars criticize the whole idea of early music study.