The modern political map we see and its underlying territorial assumptions are relatively recent developments. Before the modern era, borders were vague. Premodern societies conceived of divisions and borders and arranged social and political space in ways that differ from today. ‘Borders and territory in the ancient world’ charts the history of borders from the earliest hunter-gatherers through to antiquity and beyond. Early nomadic bands, city-states, and empires employed a range of beliefs and practices for organizing and bordering territory. These approaches were nuanced and flexible. A matter of debate still, the various strategies were as much about ensuring a steady and reliable labour force as laying claim over territory.