Colonial America: A Very Short Introduction presents the current scholarly understanding of the subject. During the past generation, historians have broadened that understanding by adopting both a trans-Atlantic and a trans-continental perspective, examining the interplay of Europe, Africa, and the Americas through the flows of goods, people, plants, animals, capital, and ideas. Colonial America produced an unprecedented mixing of radically diverse peoples — African, European, and Indian — under stressful circumstances for all. The colonial intermingling of peoples, microbes, plants, and animals from different continents was unparalleled in speed and volume. Everyone had to adjust to a new world of unpredictable social and cultural hybrids that compromised and complicated the ambitious plans of empire-builders.