‘Music as culture’ examines the connections that ethnomusicologists make between music and culture. Culture, in an ethnomusicologist sense, refers to all forms of human knowledge, creativity, and values, and to their expression in various activities. Ethnomusicologists believe that humans make music as a constituent element of culture. To narrow down their study of music and culture, ethnomusicologists study the connections through particular themes, issues, and questions. Over the last few decades, ethnomusicologists have asked questions about urban and popular music, music's role in religious life, the economics of music, gender and music, the use of technology, music and politics, and the effect on music of migration, diaspora, and globalization.