‘Ethnomusicology in the modern world’ describes the ways that the field of ethnomusicology has changed since its inception. In the past, ethnomusicologists tended to stick to researching established musical practices, today this has changed considerably. Ethnomusicologists now study every sort of contemporary musical activity. They have now abandoned the old construction of the world in two spheres—the traditional and the modern. Now they are engaged with the mixing, hybridization, and syncretism of musical forms. Ethnomusicologists study new hybrid forms and also how local musicians use these to advance their own agendas. Musical output can be a helpful way to deal with the psychological and social ruptures caused by separation from old traditions.